Saturday, November 13, 2004

Swing Music in the 1930s

Jazz History for the Non-Music Major

Each chapter will cover approximately one decade of the history of jazz music, including the different styles of jazz, famous composers, how the music affected the culture and vice versa and what factors led to its demise (or lack thereof).

Chapter One: Jazz: 1900- 1920
Chapter Two: 1921-1930
Chapter Three: 1931-1940
Chapter Four: 1941- 1950
Chapter Five: 1951-1960
Chapter Six: 1961-1970
Chapter Seven: 1971-1980
Chapter Eight: 1981- 1990
Chapter Nine: 1990- present

Chapter Three
The Swing Era began

The Swing Era began in the 1930s. It was derived from New Orleans style jazz. Many jazz scholars date the beginning of the swing style to 1935 and Benny Goodman (also known as the “King of Swing”). Henderson, Ellington, and Count Basie were some artist that laid the framework for swing, but Goodman was the one who popularized it. Another reason swing was so successful, was because it was known for being one of the most “democratic” styles of music . It united the country because all people could relate to it, young and old, black and white, male and female.
The swing era was the last time that American popular music and jazz were one and the same. This occurred because swing was a completely new and energizing jazz style. The beat changed from two beat bars (in New Orleans style) to four beat bars in swing. Improvisation was also more restricted in the swing style.
Big Bands
“Big Bands” was the term coined for bands that played mostly swing style music. “Swing” and “big band” are terms that are often used interchangeably, but incorrectly so. There is a myth that these two terms mean the same thing, but on the contrary, “swing” refers to the style or technique of the music while “big band” refers to the format or arrangement.
These big bands were bigger for a few reasons. Microphones were not widely used until the mid-1940s so a band that needed more sound to fill a larger hall needed more people. Band numbers boosted from 8-10 in New Orleans style jazz up to 12-16 in the Swing style. A band usually consisted of 3-4 saxophone players, 2-3 trumpets, 2-3 trombones, a piano, guitar, bass violin, and a drum set.
There were two types of big bands during this period. The “swing” or “hot” bands played rhythmically stimulating pieces with extensive solos. People like Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Jimmie Lunceford, and Andy Kirk all had these swing big bands. On the other hand, “sweet” bands had less swing feeling and shorter solos. The bands of Glenn Miller, Wayne King, Freddy Martin and Guy Lombardo were sweet bands.
Composer and Arrangers
The King of Swing
As mentioned earlier, Benny Goodman is credited with popularizing the swing style music. The King of Swing was born in May 1909 and grew up in the Chicago ghetto. He began taking clarinet lessons from Franz Shoeppe at a young age. His teacher despised jazz. When he was fourteen his father died and he had to go to work to help support his family. At seventeen, he made his first recording and his career began when he was nineteen when Ben Pollack heard his recording and hired him. He played with different bands throughout the country. In 1938, his was the first band to play at Carnegie Hall. He wasn’t completely focused on jazz, however. He spent time on classical works by people including Bela Bartok and Aaron Copeland to name a couple. He remained well known in the jazz world from 1930s well into the 1980s as a clarinetist, composer, and arranger. For many years, a clarinet player was considered to be playing incorrectly unless they were playing “Goodman style”.
Duke Ellington
Edward Kennedy Ellington was born in April 1899 in Washington D.C. He began taking piano lessons when he was seven years old but was more into baseball than anything else at that age. As he grew older, his piano lessons became a thing of the past. But then one summer while on vacation, he heard of an amazing ragtime pianist by the name of Harvey Brooks. He sought Brooks out and Brooks taught him some piano tricks and shortcuts for playing jazz piano. When Duke got home, he said it was the first time he’d “been able to get off the ground.” He finally had a passion to play and thus, his career was born. Duke Ellington passed away in 1974 but his legend lives on in the hundreds of compositions that are still around.
Count Basie
William Basie was born in August of 1904 in Red Bank, New Jersey. When he was younger, he originally wanted to play the drums but there was too much competition between him and another friend so he chose the piano instead. He toured with different and acts and groups until he joined the Blue Devils. He stayed with them until the early 1930s when they broke up. Soon after that, he joined Bennie Morton’s band. In 1935, Bennie Morton died, and Basie along with a few members from that band, came together with a few others to form Count Basie’s band. Basie’s band was known all over the country for their ensemble capabilities. They were a model for “ensemble rhythmic conception and tonal balance.”
Fletcher Henderson
James Fletcher Henderson was born in December 1897. He lived in a middle class family and received a degree from Alabama University in Chemistry. He moved to New York City soon after graduation and formed his own band in 1922. This band was soon known as the best “colored” band in the New York. He was not very interested in managing the band so it fell apart. In 1939, he joined Goodman’s band as a pianist and arranger and soon as a full time arranger. Henderson had a stroke in 1950 and lost partial control of his body. This paralysis forced him to give up piano and he died in 1958 in New York.
Demise of the Swing Era
The Swing style of jazz was the first music style to be commercialized. It was this commercialization along with World War II, and the American Federation of Music’s ban in 1942 that led to the demise of swing into the bebop era. This ban forced the members to stop making records until the record company agreed to pay each time a song was played on the radio or juke box. It took two years for some cases to settle and musicianship to return to normal.
Thus, as the swing music declined, so did the popularity of big bands. Another type of swing followed the decline of the big band era. Progressive swing, otherwise known as “rebellious swing” came into play. This type of swing was characterized by a darker sound than their big band counterparts. There were also fewer people in the group. After the swing era ended, jazz bands decreased in record sales and in popularity. There was a revival of the swing period in the mid 1990s, but nothing has been able to top the period of glory for the swing

Duke Ellington
Fletcher Henderson
Count Basie

Performance Anxiety

As performers, we’ve all had to deal with being nervous. Your heart is racing, there are butterflies in your stomach, you start to sweat; these are all symptoms of performance anxiety. The first thing to understand is that fear is a natural and normal human ‘negative’ emotion. The purpose of negative emotions is to tell us that something isn’t quite right; an indication that we need to take some kind of action.

In the case of fear, the message is ‘danger’. We are born with fear of loud noises and fear of heights ‘pre-wired’ in our nervous systems, and all other fears are learned from experience. Although you have no choice of how you are raised, you can do something about how you deal with being nervous.

Four Steps for Managing Performance Anxiety

Step 1: Self Assessment: Getting to know yourself better, as a person and as a musician.
-Identify problematic thinking. Figure out whether you are a negative or positive thinker. If you are a negative thinker you are obviously going to be harder on yourself and be more critical of your performance than if you thought positively.
-What are your personal motives for performing? Think about what you want to achieve while performing (i.e. Do you want to make an impression? Do you want to use music? Do you want everything memorized?).
-What are your capabilities and limitations as a performer? If you are not capable of doing something, don’t try it or else your nerves will increase.
-Ask yourself: “What am I really afraid of?” Worst-case scenario-you run off the stage and everyone laughs hysterically. That’s highly unlikely, and might give you a perspective into the realities of what it is you are really afraid of.
-Try not to confuse self-assessment with self-criticism. When you assess yourself you should just evaluate how you did and what you can improve on for the future. Criticizing yourself doesn’t do anything but make you feel worse about yourself and your performance.

Step 2: Gradual Exposure and Preparation
-Look for opportunities for exposure to moderate levels of stress that challenge but do not overwhelm your coping skills, example: visualization of the performance. Other examples: practice performances, dress rehearsals, taping yourself and playing it back.
-Be thoroughly prepared. Nothing replaces adequate time spent in rehearsal and practice.
-Consider how the use of relaxation techniques can help “harmonize” the body. Meditation, yoga, and/or muscle relaxation can help the body and mind feel uplifted and balanced so you feel excited and prepared, but not overwhelmed. Using these techniques can help you avoid self-medicating with drugs and alcohol.

Step 3: During the Performance
-Rather than blocking out the audience, or seeing them in their underwear, try seeing them as allies who are generally supportive and want you to do well.
-Remember, most performers have to deal with anxiety-it comes with the territory. You are in good company!
-Feelings of anxiety are natural, and can be used to your advantage. For example, when your adrenaline is running, sometimes it causes you to have a better performance!
-Maintain your normal routine when preparing for a performance. Don’t do anything out of the ordinary that would make you lose your focus for your performance.
-Act calmly, even if you feel nervous. The more you dwell on anxiety, the more you are likely to remain preoccupied with it.
-Try to overlook minor errors when you perform. Overall impressions are more important to the audience than note-perfect performances.
-Consider performing as an opportunity by becoming immersed in the musical experience. For example: get out of yourself and into the audience. Try switching off the left brain’s critical words and switching on the right brain’s passive observation. This may help you escape self-criticism and stay in the moment.
-Enjoy what you’ve accomplished. Others are more likely to enjoy this way, too.

Step 4: After the performance
-Temper such external feedback with internal beliefs and expectations you have already established.
-Asking others afterwards, “how did I do” without asking yourself first might be depriving yourself of a significant source of valid information about your performance: YOU!

If you read all of these steps and try to apply them to yourself and your performance, your anxiety will lessen with time. Although if you do all of that and your anxiety for performing is still out of control then you could consider taking prescription drugs for the problem.

The only drugs that are prescribed with any degree of frequency for musical performance anxiety are the beta adrenergic blockers, such as nadolol, oxprenolol, and propranolol. The theory is that beta-blockers eliminate the physical symptoms of anxiety that may interfere with performance (e.g. butterflies, palpitations, sweating, unsteady hand or voice) while leaving the head clear for optimal performance. These may be a useful stop-gap but long-term dependence on drugs of any kind is best avoided.

Hopefully these steps will help you with improving your performance ability by coping with your anxiety. Always remember that you are not alone. Even professional musicians get bad cases of performance anxiety before a show or concert. It is a common thing and the best advice would be to know how your body reacts to nervousness and try and control it by using the steps above.

The Social Psychology of Music. Edited by David J. Hargreaves & Adrian C. North. 1997.

Thursday, November 11, 2004


This is an example of how to put a picture in the blog.

Sunday, November 07, 2004


Symphony No. 1 in D minor, ``Titan''. Scored for 4 flutes (3rd and 4th doubling piccolo), 4 oboes (3rd doubling English horn), 3 clarinets (3rd doubling bass clarinet), Eb-clarinet, 3 bassoons, 1 contrabassoon, 7 horns, 4 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, tympani (2 players), triangle, cymbals, bass drum, tam-tam, and strings.

1 I. Langsam. Schleppend
2 Blumine: Andante (original second movement)
3 II. Kraftig Bewegt
4 III. Feierlich und Gemessen, Ohne zu Schleppen
5 IV. Stumisch Bewegt

Gustav Mahler was born in Kalischt, Bohemia on July 7, 1860. He received his diploma on June 1878 from the Conservatory of the Society of the Friends of Music in Vienna. Mahler’s First Symphony was premiered by the Royal Hungarian Opera Orchestra in Budapest. On May 18, 1911 Gustav Mahler died at the age of 51. Gustav Mahler is most widely known for his 10(?) symphonies, though he did write many other pieces, some of which include: a piano quintet, a sonata for violin and piano, and some lieder.

Yoel Levi was born in Romania, but grew up in Israel. He studied at the Tel Aviv Academy of Music and the Jerusalem Academy of Music. He also studied with Franco Ferrara, with Kiril Kondrashin in Holland. He became an assistant to Lorin Maazel at the Cleveland Orchestra for six years, serving as Resident Conductor from 1980 to 1984. Mr. Levi has made over 40 recordings with different orchestras. He has also made many appearances as guest conductor with many of world renowned orchestras some of which include Cleveland, London, and Paris. Mr. Yoel Levi is now music director emeritus of the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra.

“Since its first concerts in 1945, the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra has grown from a local youth group to become one of America's major orchestras, noted for its impressive list of Grammy winning recordings as well as the excellence of its live performances. The foremost cultural organization in the southeastern United States, it serves as a cornerstone for artistic development in the region. The Atlanta Symphony Orchestra performs more than 200 concerts each year to a combined audience estimated at over half a million. In addition to its 72 concert main subscription season, the ASO presents light classical concerts, family concerts, annual summer festivals, outdoor summer pops concerts and free concerts in city parks. The "ASO Around Georgia" program was launched this year, which brings the Orchestra to Albany, Tifton, Perry and Rome.”

Cecylia Arzewski - Concertmaster
William Pu - Associate Concertmaster
Jun-Ching Lin - Assistant Concertmaster
Willard Shull - Assistant Concertmaster Emeritus
Carolyn Toll Hancock
Martha Reaves Head
John Meisner
Alice Anderson Oglesby
Lorenz Ottzen
Christopher Pulgram
Carol Ramirez
Juan Ramirez
Denise Berginson Smith
Kenn Wagner
Lisa Wiedman Yancich

David Arenz - Principal
Sou-Chun Su - Associate Principal
Jay Christy - Assistant Principal
Eleanor Arenz
Sharon Berenson
David Braitberg
Noriko Konno Clift
Judith Cox
David Dillard
Raymond Leung
Ruth Ann Little
Thomas O'Donnell
Ronda Respess
Sanford Salzinger
Karen Stovall
Frank Walton

Reid Harris - Principal
Paul Murphy - Associate Principal
Amy Leventhal - Assistant Principal
John Detrino
Enid Jones
Robert Jones
Marian Kent
Catherine Lynn
Lachlan McBane
Heidi Nitchie
Ardath Weck

Christopher Rex - Principal
Daniel Laufer - Associate Principal
Dona Vellek Klein - Assistant Principal
Joel Dallow
Jere Flint
Karen Freer
Kathleen Kee
Larry LeMaster
Brad Ritchie Paul Warner

Ralph Jones - Principal
Gloria Jones - Associate Principal
Jane Little - Assistant Principal Emeritus
Michael Kenady
Michael Kurth
Douglas Sommer
Thomas Thoresen
Randolph Ujcich

Christina Smith - Principal
Robert Cronin - Associate Principal
Paul Brittan
Carl David Hall

Carl David Hall

Jonathan Dlouhy - Principal
Yvonne Powers Peterson - Associate Principal
Deborah Workman
Patrick McFarland

Patrick McFarland

Laura Ardan - Principal
Ted Gurch - Associate Principal
William Rappaport
Douglas Smith

Ted Gurch

Douglas Smith

Carl Nitchie - Principal
Elizabeth Burkhardt - Associate Principal
Z. Mark Smith
Juan de Gomar

Juan de Gomar

Brice Andrus - Principal
Susan Welty - Associate Principal
Thomas Witte
Richard Deane
Bruce Kenney

Christopher Martin - Principal
Mark Hughes - Associate Principal
Joseph Walthall
Michael Tiscione

Colin Williams - Principal
Stephen Wilson
Donald Wells

Donald Wells

Michael Moore - Principal

Mark Yancich - Principal
William Wilder - Assistant Principal

Thomas Sherwood - Principal
William Wilder - Assistant Principal
Charles Settle

Elisabeth Remy - Principal

Peter Marshall
Beverly Gilbert
Sharon Berenson

Robert O'Brien - Principal
Steven Sherrill - Assistant
Frank Walton
John Wildermuth

Information about orchestra taken from
For reviews of this CD, click this

Stacey Erin Sands- Senior Voice Recital

Sarah Harive Presents
Stacey Erin Sands, Soprano
Marilyn Libbin, Piano

1. Introduction
2. A Simple Song from Mass- Leonard Bernstein
3. O del mio dolce ardor- Christoph Willibald von Gluck
4. Porgi, amor from Le Nozze di Figaro- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
5. Ach, ich fü hl’s from Die Zauberflöte- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
6. Gretchen am Spinnrade- Franz Schubert
7. Beau Soir- Claude Debussy
8. Après un rêve- Gabriel Fauré
9. Green Finch and Linnet Bird from Sweeny Todd- Stephen Sondheim
10. American Lullaby- Gladys Rich
11. My Funny Valentine from Babes in Arms- Richard Rodgers
12. Monica’s Waltz from The Medium- Gian Carlo Menotti
13. Art is Calling for Me from The Enchantress -Victor Herbert

O del mio dolce ardor
O my sweet ardor, desired object,
The breezes which you breathe, at last I breathe
Wherever I glance I see your lovely features
Love, in dreams I hold you, my thoughts imagine you
I happily hope and in the longing which fills my bosom
I seek you, I call you, I hope and I sigh.
Porgi, amor
Grant, love, some relief to my sorrow, to my sighing!
Either give me back my beloved or just let me die!
Ach, ich fü hl’s
Ah I feel it; it has vanished- forever gone,
the happiness of love!
Never will you, blissful hours, come back again to my heart.
See, Tamino, these tears flow, beloved one, for you alone.
If you do not feel the longing of love,
then peace will come to me in death.
Gretchen am Spinnrade (Gretchen at the Spinning Wheel)
My peace is gone, my heart is heavy;
it is finished forever and ever more.
Where he is not, I feel the grave, the entire world is soundless. I’ve lost my head, and my sense is gone.
I only go to the window to look for him.
I only leave the house to see him.
The way he walks, his noble face, his forceful eyes, his speech like an enchanted river, his hand in mine, and oh his kiss!
I long for him. Alas if I could grasp him and hold him.
And die with a kiss.
Oh if he could hold me. I could die with a kiss.
Beau Soir (Beautiful Evening)
When at sunset the rivers are rose tinted
And a warm breeze shivers across the wheat fields
A suggestion to be happy seem to emanates from all things
And rises toward the troubled heart.
A suggestion to savor the pleasure of being alive
While one is young and the evening is beautiful.
For we shall all go as the wave goes to sea, we go to the tomb.
Aprè s un rê ve (After a Dream)
In a sleep charmed by your image
I dreamed of happiness, a beautiful picture.
Your eyes were very soft
Your voice, pure and rich.
You were as radiant as a sky lit by the dawn.
You called me and I left the earth
to flee with you towards the light .
The heavens parted their clouds for us,
Splendors unknown, glimpses of divine light…
Alas, alas, sad awakening from dreams
I call to you, o night, give me back your illusions.
Return, return, in radiance, return, o night mysterious!

This recital was recorded live at Lakeside Presbyterian Church April 30th, 2004. I am very proud of this CD but I know I still have a long way to go in my artistic development.
Now for a few special thanks.

Mom and Dad you are amazing for all the years of driving me to and from rehearsals, lessons, concerts, and for spending huge amounts of money on lessons, instruments, music and whatever else I’ve needed along my journey. But thank you most of all for the support. You have always been there for me and assured me that I can do anything that I put my mind to. Thank you.

Sarah Harvie, you are an amazing teacher. Thank you for always pushing me to be my best. I will always have a special place in my heart for you.

My family, church family, teachers and friends, you have helped me to grow and become what I am today. Thank you all.


Ludwig van Beethoven was born in Bonn, Germany and baptized December 17, 1770. He had music published by the time he was twelve. In his late teens, he studied with Haydn, Schenk, Albrechtsberger, and Salieri. During this early period, he composed most brilliantly on his own instrument, piano sonatas and concertos, the first two symphonies and six string quartets. It was around this point in his life, where Beethoven learned that his hearing impairment was incurable and that it was bound to worsen. He was very depressed for a long time but over came this. In this middle period, he wrote pieces such as Symphonies 6-8, a few more piano concertos, sonatas and chamber works. After this period (around 1812), he was also severely depressed from his deafness but came out of this as well to write his more prolific music. His later period included seven piano sonatas, Symphony No. 9 and some operas in which the public was amazed. He died in early 1827 after receiving enormous public recognition as a composer, the first composer of his time to have this honor.

The Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra
The Concertgebouw Orchestra began in 1888 and soon became one of the most established orchestras in Europe. In 1988 it received the Royal title. Today, the orchestra includes 120 of the best musicians from around the globe. Strauss, Mahler, Debussy, and Stravinski have all conducted the orchestra and other virtuosities like Bartók and Rachmaninoff have performed their works with the orchestra.

Pinchas Zukerman
Pinchas Zuckerman has been a recognized artist for over forty years. He was born in Tel Aviv in 1948. These days, he is working as the Music Director of Canada’s National Arts Centre Orchestra. ( He plays with the premier orchestras of the day. For more information go to

Alfred Brendel
Alfred Brendel was born and grew up in Yugoslavia and Austria. He is currently living in London and has been since 1972. Apart from playing the piano, he writes poetry and essays in German, his native language. He is very well known for his interpretation of certain composers especially Beethoven, Schubert, Mozart and Liszt.

Claudio Arrau
Claudio Arrau was born in 1903. He grew up in Chile and was recognized as a prodigy from very early in his life. He had his Carnegie Hall debut when he was 20 years old on October 20, 1923. He had 30 dates in the United States that year and only played five of them. He played again at Carnegie Hall in 1941 and this time he said he felt “ready and mature.” The hall was completely full. One of the best reviews he has received was from the London Sunday Times: “One regards him as a sort of miracle; the piano is the most machinelike of instruments except the organ - all those rods, levers, little felt pads, wires, no intimate subtle human connection with it by breath, tongueing, or the string player's direct engagement with speaking vibrations. But Arrau makes it live, like God teaching Adam on Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel roof; liquid, mysterious, profound, alive.”

O.K. Ya'll are right. the pieces on the CD are as follows:
1.) Symphony No. 5 1. Allegro con brio
2.) Violin Romanze No. 2 in F major
3.) Bagatelle in A minor "Fur Elise"
4.) Overture No. 3
5.) Sonata No. 14 (Moonlight Sonata) 1. Adagio Sustenuto
6.) Symphony No. 6 "Pastoral"
7.) Sonata No. 8 2. Adagio cantabile
8.) Piano Concerto No. 5 in E-flat major 3. Rondo

Corinne Webb: Senior Recital


“Allegro” from Horn Concerto No. 3 in Eb Major, K447……W.A. Mozart

French Horn - Corinne Webb

Piano - Sonja England

“Gardens in the Rain” from Estampes………………...…Claude Debussy

Piano - Corinne Webb

Sonata for Horn.…………………………...…..……….Paul Hindemith

French Horn - Corinne Webb

Piano - Sonja England

“The Wanderer” from Songs without Words…………....Felix Mendelssohn

Piano - Corinne Webb

Excursions, No. 1, Op 20 ………...…………...………….Samuel Barber

Piano - Corinne Webb

Trio for Brass …………………………P. Koepke, P. Hall, V. Barvinsky

I. Prelude II. Winter III. A Light Rain

French Horn - Corinne Webb

Trombone - Andrea Webb

Trumpet - William Webb

The All-American Hometown Band….…………..Walter and Carol Noona

Piano - Corinne Webb

Piano - Andrea Webb

Claude Achille Debussy (1862-1918), arguably the most influential Impressionistic composer of his time, started his piano career at the age of nine. He was trained at the Paris Conservatoire and it was there that he quickly became frustrated with piano performance and decided to pursue composition. He married Rosalie Texier, but within ten years, left her and married Emma Bardac in 1908. The next year, he found out that he had cancer. Also complicating his life was World War I, dying on March 25, 1918 as the German artillery marched into Paris.
Much of his work was inspired by the impressionistic visual artists and poets of his time. In fact, one of his most well-known works, L’apres-midi d’un faune (Prelude to the Afternoon of the Faun), was inspired by his close friend and impressionistic poet, Stephane Mellarme. Also, the works of Wagner inspired him greatly, however he rejected the works of other Wagner-inspired composers such as Gustav Mahler and Richard Strauss, preferring “simpler” ideas. He also did not believe that music should or could be formally analyzed through a set criteria. He stated, “There is no theory. You have only to listen. Pleasure is the law.”
Jardins sous la pluie (Gardens in the Rain), one of Debussy’s numerous works for solo piano, was written in 1903. He felt inspired to write Gardens in the Rain after attending The Paris Exhibition in 1889, where he heard oriental music. After attending the Paris Exhibition in 1889, he felt inspired to write a collection of movements from this exposure to new international music. Although Gardens in the Rain Gardens in the Rain is part of the Estampes collection, the last of which is Gardens in the Rain in this collection.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) was one of the most well-known musicians of his time throughout Europe and still is recognized as one of the leaders of the Classical music era. A child prodigy, he started composing at the age of five. By the age of three, when most are still learning to speak a language. Mozart was able to pick up tunes by ear and play them back on piano. His father and an accomplished musician himself, Leopold Mozart, immediately realized his son’s musical genius. At the age of seven, Leopold Mozart hoped to profit from his son’s talents and took him on a tour of Europe, playing for the courts in Paris and London among other places. He and his father had a very unique and somewhat unhealthy relationship. Wolfgang resented the amount of control that his father had over his childhook, yet he was the person that he grew up closest to while touring Europe as a young child.
Mozart, having been deprived of any and every part of a normal childhood, never seemed to outgrow his child-like behavior throughout his adult life. Although he was widely known as one of the most talented musicians in Europe, his lack of tact often kept him from attaining the highest paying jobs that he yearned for. Throughout the beginning of his adult life, Mozart lived in many different cities including Salzburg and Munich, however none of these cities were large enough for a man of his talent. He eventually moved to Vienna and lived there for the remainder of his life. His cause of death was a high fever, probably scarlet fever, and no poison as rumor would have it. He ironically left one of his largest works for the church, his Requiem, unfinished upon his death. He was buried outside Vienna in an unmarked grave.
Mozart’s Concerto No. 3, Mvt. 1 was written in 1783. Four out of the five works that Mozart wrote for horn were written for his friend and well-known horn virtuoso, Ignaz Joseph Leutgeb. Leutgeb, was then a part of the Archbishop’s orchestra in Salzburg before moving to Vienna. Although Mozart’s Concerto No. 3 was not specifically written to be played by Leutgeb, historians find no reason not to believe that it was not written for him as all of the others were.

Paul Hindemith (1895-1963), a native to Germany, is a highly-regarded composer, conductor, violist, educator, and theoretician of 20th century music.
In addition to music, he also had interests in medieval philosophy and early church documents. He was able to play of the modern instruments to some extent, but was known as one of the most accomplished violists of his time. He did not stop at playing all of the instruments and he eventually wrote concerti for all of the instruments that he was able to play. Apparent in all of his music is the influence of Bach, even writing a collection of pieces in which he refers directly to Bach’s
The sonata for Horn was written by Hindemith in 1939. He piece has been recorded by many people including a duo by Mason Jones on horn and Glenn Gould on piano. Hindemith, who was known for writing piano accompaniments that challenged even the best, certainly made no exception in this sonata. The piano part combines complex rhythmic pattern, changing time signatures, and unusual chords to the point where the prominence of the piano turns this horn sonata into a duet for piano and horn.

Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847), a native of Berlin, was an accomplished pianist by the age of nine and had written symphonies, concertos, and sonatas by the time that he was thirteen. The member of his family, who were for the most part in bankers, were all moderately well-off and were great supporters of the artistic and intellectual community. Due to his family’s wealth, he did not suffer from the financial difficulties that so many other musicians of his time were forced to cope with, and was therefore able to concentrate on his music making. He was able to have a relatively normal life with a wife and five children despite the fact that he was a musician. He was greatly influenced by the works of Bach, Handel, Mozart and Beethoven. At the age of just 20, he was a recognized conductor of a professional orchestra and he went on to found the Leipzig Conservatory at the age of thirty-three. At the age of 38, he died suddenly of a stroke.
All of Mendelssohn’s Songs Without Words were originally published without titles at the Mendelssohn’s request. He felt that the pieces that he wrote did not necessarily have to be “programmatic” in nature and therefore wrote them without lyrics or titles. Publishers have since placed titles on many of them, such as “The Wanderer,” in order to help with identification.

Samuel Barber (1910-1981) was born in West Chester, Pennsylvania, were he managed to write his own compositions by the time that he was eight. Soon following that, he made an attempt to write his first opera by the time that he was ten. He studied composition, piano, and voice at the Curtis Institute by the time he was fourteen. He won many prizes within his lifetime, including two pulizers. He also won the American Academy’s Prix de Rome, which allowed him to study in Rome. Trained in the European classical style of the Curtis Institute where he obtained so much of his education, his music often seems to oscillate between the European influence and his own “American” ideas. It was at Curtis that he met Gian Carlo Menotti who he later moved in with after leaving Curtis as a professor. Probably his most famous work would be his Adagio for Strings.
Excursions is an example of Samuel Barber’s synthesis of his European training and his fascination with “American” ideas. Each one of his three movements is based on a regional idiom from the US. Each of the movements is also based on a local instrument from each of the regions. The first of Barber’s Excursions is based on the jazz rhythms of the south.

Paul Koepke is known for brass arranging of many types. One of his most familiar works is Prelude and Fanfaronade, is arranged for trombone and piano.

Percy Hall is a composer, conductor, and arranger. He is currently the conductor of the Mansfield Symphony Youth Strings. He attended the University of Maryland and then joined an Army band. He then joined Westminster College where he received his music education degree. He also performs with the Mansfield Symphony Orchestra.

Walter and Carol Noona are a married piano duo who have written numerous piano duets and ensembles. Walter studied at East Carolina University. He has been a finalist in the Steinway Centennial competition. He also is an orchestral conductor and has made guest conducting appearances with numerous major orchestras such as the Pittsburg Symphony and the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra. Carol studied at the American Conservatory of Music and has taught piano since the age of fourteen. She is also interested in theory and pedagogy. Currently, they live together in Virginia and they have performed together at numerous workshops.

Corinne Webb has been playing the French horn for 6 years. She graduated from Edina Public Schools in 2004 and is currently attending DePauw University, studying with Robert Danforth. She studied with Ellen Smith of the Minnesota Orchestra and with Kathleen Van Doeren throughout high school. She has been a part of many ensembles including the Minnesota All-State Concert Band, Great Lakes Ambassadors of Music European Tour band, the Interlochen Arts Camp Symphonic Band, the Greater Twin Cities Youth Orchestra Symphony and numerous college honor bands. She has attended many festivals and camps such as the Bands of America summer music program, the Interlochen Arts Camp, the Kendall Betts Horn Camp, and the St. Olaf College Summer Music Program.

Sonya England is a resident of Edina, Minnesota, Sonya England has been musically active in the community for many years. She has taught in public schools and she quite successfully ran her studio in Edina for many years as a private piano teacher. Since retiring, she now solely accompanies students around the Twin Cities area. She was an accompanist for the Interlochen Arts Camp for about a decade. She graduated from Augsburg College in Minneapolis, Minnesota with degrees in piano performance and education. She lives with her husband, John England, who is a professional trombonist and studio teacher in their home in Edina. Her two daughters, Karna and Elizabeth, both graduated from Edina High School and attended the New England Conservatory on trombone and oboe, respectively.

William Webb has been the director of bands at Edina High School since 1987. He is well-known as a conductor, educator, performer, and leader in music education. He was the president of the Minnesota Band Directors Association (MBDA). For the past 15 years, he has been the associate conductor of the Minnesota Symphonic Winds which is now directed by Timothy Mahr. Mr. Webb is past president of the Phi Beta Mu professional music fraternity and has served on the VanderCook College Alumni Board of Directors. He has been active in the Minnesota State High School League and has served on many selection committees for it. He has been involved in numerous groups that include the Music Educator’s National Conference, the National Band Association, Minnesota Music Educator’s Association, Minnesota Band Director’s Association, and the International Association of Jazz Educators. William Webb is a native of St. Paul, Minnesota and currently lives in Edina, Minnesota.

Andrea Webb is currently a senior at Edina High School (EHS). She has been involved in many activities within the school and in the arts. She is a leader for the “Transition Team” at EHS for the incoming sophomores and also is a leader for both fifth and ninth graders throughout the district. She is the captain of the top danceline and has been dancing for ten years. She is also a teacher’s assitant three of the lines at the studio. She is also heavily involved in music as a trombone student and piano player. She has gone on a Minnesota-based tour group to Europe for band and she will be traveling to California in January of 2005 to play in the BOA All-American National Honor Marching Band for the Rose Bowl Parade. She has also was selected and participated in the Minnesota All-State Symphonic Band for 2004. She is currently looking at attending Northwestern University, Duke University, St. Olaf College, Univeristy of Minnesota-Twin Cities, or the University of Wisconsin-Madison beginning next fall.

Juan Diego Florez-Rossini Arias


Rossini was the king of Italian opera in the early 1800s. He wrote a grand total of 39 operas in his lifetime. His operas were for the most part comedic. Two of Rossini's most famous comedic operas are represented on this CD: Il Italiana in Algieri and Il Barbiere di Siviglia. Others include an original rendition of "Ah Dove il cimento" from Semiramide and Rodrigo's angry speech to Iago from Otello. Sadly, most of Rossini's operas still have not been revived and brought back into the standard repertoire. This is largely due to the technical demand Rossini places on opera singers. Few singers have the brilliance and technical ability to handle the almost constant coloratura of a Rossini role. This burden is especially heavy on Tenors. All of the arias included on this CD lie in insane tessituras and require absolutely flawless agility. However, tenors such as the one on this recording are helping to bring back what was once thought a dying genre of opera.

Juan Diego Florez: :

The young Peruvian tenor featured on this CD has sung from a very young age. He began his musical studies at age 17 in the Peruvian National Conservatory. From there, Florez went on to study at Curtis and later under the tutelage of Ernesto Palacio. Florez is a tenor leggiero in every sense of the term. His voice is light and wonderfully agile. He handles the ridiculous tessituras and runs placed on tenors by the Bel Canto composers with ease. Only 32, Florez has already performed at La Scala, The Met, and the Vienna Staatsoper to name a few. Florez has received critical praise for both his technical polish and his simple yet genuine acting.

Aria 1: "Ah dov'e, dov'e il cimento"-Semiramide
This song is sung by the character Idreno in the opera Semiramide. He is about to enter a competition to win the love of Semiramide. This aria is perhaps the most challenging on the CD. It has Two High Ds. Yikes!

Aria 2: "Che Ascolto"-Otello
This aria is from Rossini's opera Otello based on the famous Shakespeare play Othello. This aria is sung by Rodrigo to Iago. Florez does an excellent job of this aria as well although it isn't as impressive as the first aria on the CD.

Aria 3: "Cessa di Piu resistere"-Il Barbiere di Siviglia
This aria is from the famous Il Barbiere di Siviglia, or as it is know in English, The Barber of Seville. Traditionally, this aria is cut from the opera because of its intensely challenging coloratura passages which Florez handled with ease.

Aria 4: "Vieni Fra queste braccia"-La gazza Ladra
This aria is also very challenging to negotiate, especially the second section which crosses over the passagio almost constantly. Florez does an excellent job of articulating every not in the second section. This aria is sung by the character Giannetto to his beloved Ninetta.

Aria 5: "Concedi, amor pietoso"-Il Italiana in Algieri
This delightful aria comes from the comedic Il Italiana in Algieri. It is sung by the character Lindoro. Although this aria lacks some of the technical brilliance of the others, it is quite challenging. Florez does an excellent job of singing an effortless High C at the end of the aria on a pure E vowel to boot!

Aria 6: "S'intessano agli allori...Terra amica"-Zelmira
This aria is sung by the character Ilo upon his return from war. He longs to see his wife and beloved son. I felt that of all the arias on this CD, that this was the least impressive. However, that is not saying much considering that it is still Rossini. Once again Florez did a fantastic job.

Aria 7: "Oh fiamma soave"-La Donna del lago
This particular aria adds a nice contrast to the rest of the CD. It is much slower and more languorous. Florez demostrates his ability to handle longer, sustained notes with ease and finesse.

Aria 8: "Si, ritrovarla io giuro"-La Cenerentola
With a simple translation, this opera's story suddenly becomes familiar: Cinderella. This aria is sung by the prince as he swears to find his beloved mystery woman. Only in this version, he finds a bracelet and not a glass slipper. This aria has lots of coloratura and makes an excellent closer for this CD. Florez does an excellent job of articulating every note, especially the last high C.

One Breath Closer To You...


"One Breath Closer To You" was a single CD my dad made for all of our family. He wrote this CD after my grandfather (his dad) past away. My dad and his father were very close, as well as my grandpa was close to all of us grandkids. It was many months after his death that my dad told us about this CD. He then gave a CD to each one of our family members for Christmas in memory of my grandfather, Robert Teepen.
Rick Teepen, my dad, has had a passion for music since he was a kid. His parents never would let him have lessons as a kid, so he decided to teach himself. He would spend hours and hours working on piano/keyboard and singing. Although he can read music a little, for the most part he plays completely by ear. He has been involved and loved music since his childhood. He is currently the music ministry leader at our church and in charge of the praise band. He has also written two other CD's besides this one, including "Beacon - Rays of light" and "Feeling the Heat".

"One Breath Closer To You"

Written by: Rick Teepen - August 2001
Joe Auciello - Drums
Gary Campbell - Bass
Steve Witherbey - Acoustic and electric guitars
Connie Yoho - Vocals
Rick Teepen - Keyboards and vocals

I remember the first time I saw him cry,
I couldn't have been more than two.
He just heard the news that his father had died,
There was nothing else he could do.
It was a special thing. It was a special think.

I remember the next time I saw him cry,
Broken nic nacs off a broken shelf.
Unplanned feelings he couldn't hide.
Tears not shed for himself.
It was a special thing. It was a special thing.

Now he's one breath closer to you.
A glimpse of heaven in view.
Now he's one step closer to you.
I'll savor the memories, till I get there too.

I remember the first time I cried out of fear,
A traumatic event facing me.
I cried out for help as I fought back the tears,
He was right by my side suddenly.
It was a special thing. It was a special thing.

I remember the first time I cried out of guilt,
The cruel things I said as a teen.
As a rebel, I destroyed all the bridges he built,
Two players on opposite teams.
It was a special thing. It was a special thing.

Now he's one breath closer to you.
A glimpse of heaven in view.
Now he's one step closer to you.
I'll savor the memories till I get there too.

I remember the first time they saw me cry,
I knew it was one and the same.
I just heard the news that my father might die,
I needed their love and it came.
It was a special thing. It was a special thing.

I remember the first time I saw him cry,
From father to son, to a son.
Side by side with heads held high,
We knew a new life had begun.
It was a special thing. It was a special thing.

Now he's one breath closer to you.
A glimpse of heaven in view.
Now he's one step closer to you.
I'll savor the memories till I get there too.

Thank you...Joe, Gary, Steve, and Connie for your help and God given gifts
Thank you...God for giving Dad to me for fourty-three years

Duets! Performed by Martha and Chrissy Young

Martha Beights Young has enjoyed singing ever since grade school at Holy Cross. She toured Europe as a choir and orchestra member with the performing group “Sounds of Hope” and has faithfully served in church choirs since 1977. “Martie” currently sings with the St. Paul’s Adult Choir, the “Schola Cantorum” at Concordia Seminary, the “Bach Collegium” choir and is a soloist on the Lutheran TV ministry program, “Worship for Shut-Ins.”

Chrissy Young from early on as a toddler was destined to be a singer. She possessed an incredible sense of pitch as she sang along with her lullaby tapes from her crib at night. It was just the beginning of her journey into the world of choirs, solo spots, and musicals. Chrissy is a 2004 graduate of CLHS and attends DePauw University where she is studying vocal performance. For two years Chrissy and I have had the joy and honor of singing together for Sunday worship services at St. Paul’s Lutheran Church, entertaining the elderly in nursing homes and supporting each other in our endeavor of serving our Lord.

The King of Love – Felix Mendelssohn, This duet is based on the familiar hymn in the blue hymnal by Felix Mendelssohn. In 1961, Carl Fredrickson arranged this hymn into a beautiful duet that we sing on Good Shepherd Sunday (second Sunday in May) every year at St. Paul’s Lutheran Church.

The Peace of GodJohn Rutter, Rutter is an English composer still alive today. He wrote this piece as a benediction to be sung at the end of a church service or at a wedding. We have performed this piece at many weddings and also during church.

Pie Jesu – Andrew Lloyd Webber, Webber is another English composer still alive today. Pie Jesu is the best known song from his Requiem and even made it to Britain’s Top Ten. He wrote this Requiem Mass in memory of his father who played a very important role in his life. We have not performed this song in public because it is not appropriate in our church setting.

I waited for the LordFelix Mendelssohn, Another beautiful piece by Mendelssohn, this duet talks about how we wait for the Lord’s coming; he hears our complaints; but blessed are they who fear and trust in the Lord. We perform this duet on the last Sunday of the church year before Advent begins.

The Flower Duet – Leo Delibes, This duet comes from the opera Lakme by Delibes. It is supposed to be sung in French but we decided to sing it on an “ah” to show off the beauty of the piece.

God So Loved the World – John Stainer, This piece is based on the Bible verse John 3:16-17 and we sing it for church during the Lenten season. It is a beautiful duet written by yet another great English composer.

Laudate Dominum – W.A. Mozart, This duet comes from Mozart’s Vespers (Vesperae solennes de confessore K.339) and can be sung any time of the year for the church. Whether it be sung for weddings, concerts, or just during a church service, this piece is a very beautiful, versatile piece.

How Lovely Is Thy Dwelling PlaceJoseph Haydn, This piece is usually sung around All Saints Day since the text talks about “thy dwelling place” in heaven and it makes a reference to the Beatitudes. It’s a really beautiful piece that intertwines the two voices.

Sanctus – Gabriel Faure, “Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of hosts. The heavens and earth are filled with thy glory. Hosanna in the highest” are the English words to Sanctus. It is a very lovely duet sung during the church year.

The Father’s Love – Simon Lole, This song is based on John 15 which talks about the commandments and loving one another. Chrissy sang this song with her junior choir in grade school so Martie and Chrissy decided to record it because they loved it so much.

God has certainly blessed us with the ability to make beautiful music! We treasure those times together and wanted to create this lasting memento of a few of our favorite duets to share with you. Enjoy!